July 23


Subnet Mask – Explained


July 23, 2023


What is a subnet mask? To make sure that is a topic of this.
video clip. Currently prior to we discuss what a subnet mask is we must first speak about what an IP address.
is. An IP address is an identifier for a computer or tool on a network. Every tool needs to.
have an IP address for interaction objectives. And also to be details, I'' m speaking about an IPv4.
address. An IPv4 address is a 32-bit numerical address, created as 4 numbers, divided.
by durations. Each group of numbers that are divided by durations is called an octet. The.
number array in each octet is from 0 – 255. An IP address contains 2 parts. The initial.
part is the network address and the 2nd component is the host address.The network address or network.
ID is a number that'' s assigned to a network. So every network will certainly have an unique address. The.
host address or host id is what'' s designated to hosts within that network such as computers, web servers,.
tablets, routers, and more. So every host will certainly have a special host address. Now the means to inform.
which section of the IP address is the network or the host, is where the subnet mask comes in..
A subnet mask is a number that resembles an IP address. And also it discloses just how several little bits in the IP.
address are used for the network by covering up the network section of the IP address. Currently in the.
globe of computer systems and networks, IP addresses and also subnet masks in this decimal format below.
are useless. And also this is because computers and networks put on'' t read them in this style and also.
that'' s since they only understand numbers in a binary format, which are 1s as well as 0s.

And also these.
are called bits. So the binary number for this IP address is this number here. And the binary.
number for this subnet mask is this number. As well as these are the numbers that computers as well as.
networks just recognize. So the following inquiry is, how do we get these binary numbers from this IP.
address as well as this subnet mask? So here we have an 8 little bit octet graph. The bits in each octet are.
stood for by a number. So beginning with the right, the first little bit has a value of 1 and after that.
the number increases with each step. So there'' s 2 after that 4, 8, and so forth, right up to 128. Each. bit in the octet can be either a 1 or a 0.

If the number is a 1 then the number that it stands for.
matters. If the number is a 0 then the number that it stands for does not count. So by controling.
the 1s as well as 0s in the octet you can come up with a number variety from 0 – 255. So for instance,.
the first octet in this IP address is 192. So how do we get a binary number out of 192? First.
you take a look at the octet chart and also after that you will certainly put 1s under the numbers that would include up to the.
overall of 192. So you would certainly place a 1 in the 128 slot and after that a 1 in the 64 port. So currently if we count.
all the numbers that we have ones underneath them, you would obtain a total amount of 192. Every one of the various other.
bits would certainly be 0s since we wear'' t demand to count them since we currently have our number. So this.
number below is the binary bit version of 192. So allow'' s do the next octet which is.
168. So let'' s put a 1 under 128, 32, and 8. And after that all the rest would be 0s. So if.
we were to include all the numbers that we have 1sts underneath them we would certainly obtain a total amount of 168..
The next octet is 1.

So we'' ll put a 1 in the 1 slot as well as when you accumulate only 1 you get 1. And.
the last octet is 0, that makes points simple because all the binary numbers would certainly be all 0s..
So below is the binary number for our IP address. Currently the subnet mask binary conversion is.
specifically similarly. So in this subnet mask the first 3 octets are 255. So if we.
were to consider this subnet mask in binary kind, the first 3 octets would be all 1s.
since when you count all the numbers in an octet it will amount to 255. And.
after that the last octet would be all 0s. So below we have our IP address and subnet mask.
in binary type aligned together. So the method to inform which part of this IP address is the.
network part, is when the subnet mask binary digit is a 1 it will suggest the position of the.
IP address that defines the network. So we'' ll erase all the numbers in the IP address. that line up with the 1s in the subnet mask.
And also when you do this it will certainly expose that the. first 3 octets of the IP address is the network part as well as the staying is the. host portion.So the 1s in the subnet mask indicate the network address and the 0s show. the host addresses. So in an additional instance let ' s make use of a various IP address and subnet mask as well as. let ' s placed them in binary kind. So in this instance the initial 2 octets are 255 and the last. 2 octets are 0. So if we write off all the digits in the IP address that line up with.'the 1s in the subnet mask, we ' ll see that the first 2 octets is the network portion. as well as the last 2 octets is the host part. As well as let ' s do another, and also in this subnet mask. the very first octet is 255 et cetera are 0. And after that we ' ll erase all the figures once more, and. this time it discloses that the very first octet is the network portion and also the last 3 octets are for.
hosts. Currently determining the network and also host parts of an IP address using these default subnet masks.
was straightforward. Due to the fact that as I specified previously, when you count all the numbers in an octet it will equate to.
255. So we immediately know that the numbers in the octet are all 1sts, so we actually didn'' t. have to see the IP address or subnet mask in its binary format since it'' s so simple.

suppose the subnet mask was this number right here where the first 2 octets are 255 yet the.
3rd octet is 224? So this is a little harder. So below is the binary number for this subnet mask. The very first 2 octets are all ones and also in the third octet, the initial 3 bits are 1s which will certainly.
equal 224, due to the fact that beginning with the left, when you include the initial 3 little bits in an octet it includes.
as much as 224.

So let'' s put this subnet mask and also IP address in its binary layout. And also once more if we cross.
out all the digits in the IP address that line up with the 1sts in the subnet mask, we'' ll see that
. in the IP address, the initial 2 octets as well as the very first 3 bits in the third octet is the network.
component and also the 13 remaining bits are made use of for hosts. So an additional inquiry is, why does an IP address have.
a network and also a host component? Why can'' t it just have a host component to distinctively appoint each device an IP.
address? So why does it have a network component additionally? Currently the reason for this is manageability.

It'' s. for damaging down a huge network into smaller networks or sub networks, which is referred to as.
subnetting. So as an example let'' s claim that there were no little networks. Allow ' s say that an.
organization has a big amount of computers in one massive network. Currently when a computer system intends to speak with one more computer system, it requires to know how and also where to reach that computer. And also it does this by using a broadcast. A program is when a computer sends information to all computer systems on a network.
so it can situate and speak to a particular computer. So as an example allowed'' s say that this computer system here. intended to interact with this computer system over right here So what happens next is that this computer.
right here will certainly send out a program out on the network asking the target computer system to determine.
itself so it can communicate with it. But the trouble with this is that every computer on this.
network will certainly likewise get the program because they are all on the exact same network.

So as you can.
think of, if every computer system on this huge network was transmitting to every other computer system, just to.
interact, it would certainly be mayhem. It would decrease the network as well as potentially bring it to a halt.
due to the remarkable quantity of program traffic it would cause. And also it could also cause.
fires, well not really yet, and also if an issue were to occur on the network it would certainly be very hard.
to identify because the network is so large. So in order to avoid this networks need to be damaged.
down right into smaller sized networks and networks are broken down and literally divided by utilizing routers. And.
by utilizing routers this would certainly alleviate the issue of extreme website traffic since programs do not go.
past routers. Programs only stay within a network So currently as opposed to one huge network, this network.
is broken down right into 6 subnetworks or subnets. So currently if this computer here intended to interact.
with this computer system over right here, the computer will certainly send out a program that just the computers in.
its subnetwork can receive.

However since the target computer gets on a different subnetwork here,.
the information will certainly be sent out to the default entrance, which is the router, and after that the router will.
smartly route the data to the location. So this is why IP addresses have a network.
portion as well as a host portion, so networks can be rationally damaged down into smaller sized.
networks which is recognized as subnetting. Hey guys I simply want to break in below as well as tell you.
that if you'' re a novice and you intend to discover more about networking, I highly advise.
an audio book that will help you do that. I connected it in the description listed below as well as.
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So once more it'' s completely.
cost-free and also thank you. So allow'' s do an instance here, so let'' s say that you have a small service and also.
that this is your IP address and also subnet mask Now allowed'' s state that your local business has a
total amount. of 12 computer systems as well as all 12 of these computers are on a solitary network. And also these computer systems
belong to. various departments suggested by their shades Yet allow'' s state that you wished to separate.
the computer systems right into 3 different networks So that each department won'' t see the other. division ' s network web traffic. So rather of having 1 network in your service, you want.
to break it down into 3 small networks. So the method to damage this network down into smaller sized.
networks is by subnetting. Subnetting is done by altering the default subnet mask by borrowing.
some of the bits that were assigned for hosts as well as using them to develop subnets. So in.
this subnet mask we'' re mosting likely to alter a few of the 0s in the host section into 1sts.
so we can develop a lot more networks.

So if we leave the subnet mask the way it is, it will give us 1.
connect with 256 hosts. Now technically we have to deduct 2 hosts since the values that are.
all ones and also 0s are booked for the broadcast and network address specifically, so we in fact.
have 254 usable hosts. But we need to alter this subnet mask so we can generate the 3.
networks that we need. So as an example let'' s borrow 1 bit from the host part.

So here.
is our brand-new subnet mask. So currently the fourth octet is 128 due to the fact that when you count the first bit in.
an octet it equals 128. So by borrowing 1 little bit this will certainly divide the network in fifty percent. So currently.
rather than having 1 connect with 254 hosts this will certainly provide us 2 networks or subnets with.
126 hosts in each subnet. Now let'' s maintain going and obtain another bit from the host portion. So.
currently we are borrowing a total amount of 2 little bits from the host section. So right here is our new subnet mask, and.
the fourth octet is 192. So by borrowing 2 bits this will split the network even further and.
currently it'' ll give us 4 subnets with 62 hosts each. As well as once again let'' s borrow an additional bit from the.
host section.

So right here is our new subnet mask. And also by borrowing 3 little bits this will split the.
network right into 8 subnets with 30 hosts each. So if we continue damaging down this network,.
below is the result if we borrow 4 little bits which will give us 16 subnets with 14 hosts.
each. And also right here is the outcome if we obtain 5 bits which will give us 32 subnets with 6 hosts each..
As well as if we borrow 6 bits this will certainly give us 64 subnets with 2 hosts in each subnet. Currently.
this is practically the limit because if we borrow 7 bits it will give us 128 subnets.
however with 0 useful hosts.

So as you can see the more little bits the network part obtains from.
the host section, the amount of networks that can be produced increases with each little bit. Yet additionally the.
quantity of hosts per network gets reduced in half with each little bit. So returning to our organization.
example, if we intended to break this network down right into 3 smaller sized networks or subnets we would certainly.
need to obtain 2 bits from the host section. so also though we only require 3 networks, this.
subnet mask will certainly provide us at least 4 networks to deal with. So our brand-new personalized subnet mask.
for our 3 subnets would certainly be So currently our network is broken down.
right into 3 smaller networks or subnets. Now just to be clear, this video is about subnet.

This is not a complete lesson on subnetting because there'' s a little more to subnetting than. what I'showed you right here. I ' m simply revealing you exactly how subnet masks connect to subnetting. Now IP addresses and subnet masks been available in 5 different courses. Which are courses A – E. Nonetheless 3 of.
these courses are for commercial use. So here is a graph of the IP addresses and also default subnet masks.
which are class A, B, and C.

As well as you can tell by the number in the initial octet of the IP address and also by.
the default subnet mask which class they come from Now when an organization needs networking they.
will certainly require an IP address course according to the needs of that organization, which is based on exactly how.
numerous hosts they have. So if a company has a really large quantity of hosts, they will require a class.
A IP address. A course A IP address can produce up to 16 million hosts. So as you can see, in a default.
class A subnet mask, the host component is large 3 octets are made use of for hosts which is.
why it can produce so lots of. An example of an company that would need this several hosts.
would certainly be something like a web service service provider, due to the fact that they would require to distribute.
countless IP addresses to all their clients. A class B IP address can create up to 65,000.

This class is offered to tool to big companies. And a class C IP.
address can produce 254 hosts. Class C IP addresses are utilized in small organizations.
as well as residences that wear'' t have a great deal of hosts. Currently subnet masks can additionally be shared in.
a various method called CIDR as well as CIDR means classless inter-domain transmitting, which.
is likewise called slash notation. Slash notation is a much shorter means to write a subnet mask. And also it.
does this by writing an ahead lower and after that a number counting the 1s in the subnet mask. So for.
instance if you see an IP address such as this, with a CIDR symbols of/ 24 this suggests that the.
subnet mask is 24 little bits in length, meaning it has 24 1s.

If the CIDR notation is/ 25 this.
ways that the subnet mask is 25 bits in size Or if it'' s/ 26 this indicates that the. subnet mask is 26 bits in size. Or if the cider symbols is/ 8 this suggests.
that the subnet mask is 8 bits in length So I wish to thanks all for watching.
this video clip on subnet masks. Don'' t forget to subscribe and also get the audio publication free of cost using.
the link below. As well as I'' ll see you in the next video clip.

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